Languages spoken in Argentina: Spanish.

Geopolitics and current affairs in Argentina

The difficult economic situation, which combines recession, inflation, lesser purchasing power and increasing poverty, is the backdrop to the election campaign for the October-November 2019 general election. President M. Macri will be opposed by Alberto Fernández, former Head of Cabinet during the presidency of Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, who is on trial for corruption, and who will stand as Vice-President.

Boundaries of Argentina

It borders with Bolivia and Paraguay on the North; Brazil and Uruguay on the Northeast and Chile on the West. To the East it faces the Atlantic Ocean with a 4989 km long coast. The terrain is determined by the clear contrast between the eastern plains and the Andean cordillera, which marks the border with Chile and reaches its highest elevation in Aconcagua (6962 m). East of the Andes, from North to South, we can distinguish the Gran Chaco, a vast lowland covered by a scattered prairie of shrubs; the Pampa, an endless flat expanse; the Argentine Mesopotamia, between the Paraná and Uruguay rivers, low and marshy; the Patagonian region with Tierra del Fuego, to the South, Río Colorado, steppe and sparsely populated. The major river is Paraná, its main tributary being Paraguay. Other rivers are Pilcomayo, Uruguay, Río Negro and Chubut.

The climate varies from subtropical in Gran Chaco, steppe and arid in the Pampas to cold desert in Patagonia.

Geographically, the Islas del Atlántico Sur, which include Malvine or Falkland (12 173 sq. km), Georgias del Sur (3560 sq. km), Orcadas del Sur (750 sq. km) and Sandwich del Sur (307 sq. km), all belonging to the United Kingdom and claimed by Argentina, would be part of Argentina.

Form of government

Argentina is a Federal Republic of a presidential type, independent from Spain since 1816. It includes 23 Provinces (each with its own Governor and Electoral Assembly) and the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires.

Subject to the military-reformist regime of Juan Domingo Perón from 1946 to 1955, the country was later ruled by unstable coalitions of civilians or military juntas. Perón returned to power in 1973 and, after his death (1974), his wife María Estela Martínez de Perón, known as "Isabelita", took over the presidency.

In 1976, after a coup d'état, the military imposed a very hard dictatorship, which ended in 1983 following the defeat in the war with the United Kingdom for the control of the Falkland/Malvinas Islands.

After the presidency of Raul Alfonsín (1983-89), Carlos Menem (1989-99) was elected twice. His governments pursued a liberalist economic policy based on the forced parity of the peso with the US dollar. The persistence of the crisis also made difficult the government of the radical Fernando de la Rúa (elected in 1999 and forced to resign in 2001 following the economic collapse and the great popular protests); the 2003 presidential elections were dominated by the neo-peronist Néstor Kirchner, followed in 2007 by his wife Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, in office until 2015.

The Constitution of 1994 reduced from 6 to 4 years the mandate of the President of the Republic, who is also head of government, elected by direct suffrage (and re-eligible only for a second term). Parliament consists of the Chamber of Deputies (257 members, elected by direct suffrage with a 4-year term of office, renewed by half every 2 years) and the Senate (72 members elected with a 6-year term of office, renewed by a third every 2 years).

Translation agency for Spanish

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